Ishavasya Upanishad Webinar
Reflection Questions Day 4
Poll:
  1. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?

  2. How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?

  3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?


1. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions? 2. How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake? 3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?

2.The self is faster than the mind because though the mind is the fastest thing in the Universe ,the reality( self) in the form of existence is already there before the mind could reach the spot of contemplation.


The self overtakes everything from indriyas ( sense organs/devas) to mind.


2.The self is faster than the mind because though the mind is the fastest thing in the Universe ,the reality( self) in the form of existence is already there before the mind could reach the spot of contemplation. The self overtakes everything from indriyas ( sense organs/devas) to mind.
  1. The contradictions made in verse 4 areIt doesn't move or change &It is running : it is faster than mind & sensesThe contradictions are made so that we don't think Self as a concept or thing & we understand the real nature of Self which is beyond words.
  2. Self is everywhere , wherever mind goes Self is already present.So Self is faster than mind.
  3. Matarisva refers to Hiranyagarbha aspect of Ishwara.Because of Self, Hiranyagarbha functions : all deities perform their duties.

2nd question which components of mind I couldn't understand.


1. The contradictions made in verse 4 are It doesn't move or change & It is running : it is faster than mind & senses The contradictions are made so that we don't think Self as a concept or thing & we understand the real nature of Self which is beyond words. 2. Self is everywhere , wherever mind goes Self is already present. So Self is faster than mind. 3. Matarisva refers to Hiranyagarbha aspect of Ishwara. Because of Self, Hiranyagarbha functions : all deities perform their duties. 2nd question which components of mind I couldn't understand.

Swamiji would have explained about Cit and Cidabhasa and explained when even the reflection cannot be overtaken what to mention about the Cit.


Swamiji would have explained about Cit and Cidabhasa and explained when even the reflection cannot be overtaken what to mention about the Cit.

SELF is ever pervading. Also, the reflected concious is the engine for the Manah. As the reflected conciousness provides the required energy to the manah and the thoughts, therefore where ever the manah goes it finds the reflected conciousness there.
Thats the reason, it is said that the SELF is faster than mind. SELF overtakes the thoughts and also it overtakes the Indriyas.


SELF is ever pervading. Also, the reflected concious is the engine for the Manah. As the reflected conciousness provides the required energy to the manah and the thoughts, therefore where ever the manah goes it finds the reflected conciousness there. Thats the reason, it is said that the SELF is faster than mind. SELF overtakes the thoughts and also it overtakes the Indriyas.

Mātariśva is also known as Hiranyagarbha, which is a form of Ishwara only. In the presence of Conciousness, Hiranyagarbha enjoys all the duties done by the Devas.


Mātariśva is also known as Hiranyagarbha, which is a form of Ishwara only. In the presence of Conciousness, Hiranyagarbha enjoys all the duties done by the Devas.

Apparent contradictions are that at one place the Atman is said to be Sthira and on the other hand it said to move faster than mind. Thus, at one place it is said to be stationary and at the other point it is moving.
The reason to provide this contradiction is to shake your mind and understand that SELF is all pervading, it is everywhere and since it doesn't change it is stationary also.


Apparent contradictions are that at one place the Atman is said to be Sthira and on the other hand it said to move faster than mind. Thus, at one place it is said to be stationary and at the other point it is moving. The reason to provide this contradiction is to shake your mind and understand that SELF is all pervading, it is everywhere and since it doesn't change it is stationary also.

Q. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?


Answer
Reasons for such contradiction
1) So that we don't create a concept about what the Self is.
2) The Self cannot be known by mind and senses. The enabler is always bigger than the enabled.


How is the Self faster than the mind?


The Self is the substratum of the mind. It empowers the mind. The mind (thoughts) cannot move even a wee bit without Consciousness. Reflected Consciousness is always there before mind thinks/imagines any object.


Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?


Everything - thoughts, senses


Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?


Hiranyagarbha (Ishwara only). In presence of the Reality, Hiranyagarbha enables all deities to perform their respective karma.


Q. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions? Answer Reasons for such contradiction 1) So that we don't create a concept about what the Self is. 2) The Self cannot be known by mind and senses. The enabler is always bigger than the enabled. How is the Self faster than the mind? The Self is the substratum of the mind. It empowers the mind. The mind (thoughts) cannot move even a wee bit without Consciousness. Reflected Consciousness is always there before mind thinks/imagines any object. Which components of the mind does the Self overtake? Everything - thoughts, senses Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function? Hiranyagarbha (Ishwara only). In presence of the Reality, Hiranyagarbha enables all deities to perform their respective karma.

The reasons the Upanishads present the Brahman in contraindications are:


  1. The Brahman is not reachable by Mind or the Indriyaas. So to accurately represent the Brahman in terms of words is an impossible task to begin with. That is the reason that Shastras try to 'point at' the Brahman through the words of Shrutis.
  2. The contradictions arise because side by side the mantra is attempting to point towards the Brahman in two Drishtis - Sopadika and Nirupadika. As these two Drishtis themselves are contradictoy hence the resultant presentation is also contradictoy.
  3. Lastly these descriptions are from the Realised masters themselves and therefore incontrovertibly true as it is 'Experienced Reality' and therefore both the Sopadika and Nirupadika drishtis are both applicable. That is why Brahman is considered as both IMMAMANENT AND TRANSCENDANT!

The reasons the Upanishads present the Brahman in contraindications are: 1. The Brahman is not reachable by Mind or the Indriyaas. So to accurately represent the Brahman in terms of words is an impossible task to begin with. That is the reason that Shastras try to 'point at' the Brahman through the words of Shrutis. 2. The contradictions arise because side by side the mantra is attempting to point towards the Brahman in two Drishtis - Sopadika and Nirupadika. As these two Drishtis themselves are contradictoy hence the resultant presentation is also contradictoy. 3. Lastly these descriptions are from the Realised masters themselves and therefore incontrovertibly true as it is 'Experienced Reality' and therefore both the Sopadika and Nirupadika drishtis are both applicable. That is why Brahman is considered as both IMMAMANENT AND TRANSCENDANT!
  1. Self faster than the Mind: This is true because of the 'All pervading' nature of the SELF. Therefore wherever the thoughts of the mind reach the SELF is already present there and figuritatively it is said that Self has travelled faster than the mind to reach that place - whereas in actuality the All pervading nature of SELF does not call / require any travelling at all! Additionally the SELF is the cause for the Mind to be sentient i.e it powers the 'life' in the Mind. Therefore the Mind can never have a separate existence without Self and thus wherever Mind reaches SELF being there already arrives first!The Self not only overtakes the Mind but also the indriyas (the Senses - referre to as Devas in the Mantra). This is because actually the Indriyaas are 'powered' by the Mind and if the mind is inoperative the indriyaas cannot function. Mind therefore is figuritatively faster than the indriyaas.But we have seen that figuritatively the Self is faster than the mind and thus the SELF obviously and by a larger margin is faster than the Indriyaas too. The Self thus overtakes both the Indriyaas and the mind too.

2. Self faster than the Mind: This is true because of the 'All pervading' nature of the SELF. Therefore wherever the thoughts of the mind reach the SELF is already present there and figuritatively it is said that Self has travelled faster than the mind to reach that place - whereas in actuality the All pervading nature of SELF does not call / require any travelling at all! Additionally the SELF is the cause for the Mind to be sentient i.e it powers the 'life' in the Mind. Therefore the Mind can never have a separate existence without Self and thus wherever Mind reaches SELF being there already arrives first! The Self not only overtakes the Mind but also the indriyas (the Senses - referre to as Devas in the Mantra). This is because actually the Indriyaas are 'powered' by the Mind and if the mind is inoperative the indriyaas cannot function. Mind therefore is figuritatively faster than the indriyaas.But we have seen that figuritatively the Self is faster than the mind and thus the SELF obviously and by a larger margin is faster than the Indriyaas too. The Self thus overtakes both the Indriyaas and the mind too.
  1. Matarisva literally means Air (or wind) and in the verse it is said that 'Matarisva Dadhati apoh'. Apoh literally means water and therefore in literal meaning it states the truth - Air supports the water. We can find corroboration for this truth from the order of evolution of the Panchabhutas wherein Air precedes water and thus the immediate cause for it. The indepth reference here (as elucitidated by Guru Shankaracharya) made to Apoh - is to mean Activities and 'Matarisva' means Hiranyagarbha and it refers to the Activities of the cosmos being enabled, enlivened by the Creator.

3. Matarisva literally means Air (or wind) and in the verse it is said that 'Matarisva Dadhati apoh'. Apoh literally means water and therefore in literal meaning it states the truth - Air supports the water. We can find corroboration for this truth from the order of evolution of the Panchabhutas wherein Air precedes water and thus the immediate cause for it. The indepth reference here (as elucitidated by Guru Shankaracharya) made to Apoh - is to mean Activities and 'Matarisva' means Hiranyagarbha and it refers to the Activities of the cosmos being enabled, enlivened by the Creator.

Ok thanks Arvind ji
' > 'here means faster than


I now understand this:
Pure consciousness (Self) > Reflected consciousness (in mind) > thought in mind > senses.
So Self overtakes all these


Ok thanks Arvind ji ' > 'here means faster than I now understand this: Pure consciousness (Self) > Reflected consciousness (in mind) > thought in mind > senses. So Self overtakes all these
edited Sep 26 '23 at 1:17 pm

1) The contradictions presented in verse 4 are that the the self is sthira and it is moving or obviously more faster thN the mind. The reason to Present these contradictions are to realize self and that is bigger than being realized.


2) self is faster than mind. Before the reflected conscience prevades and then the thoughts and imaginations are present in mind. Self keeps motivating the mind.


3) Hiranyagarba the form of iswara enables all dieties to perform their duties as karma


1) The contradictions presented in verse 4 are that the the self is sthira and it is moving or obviously more faster thN the mind. The reason to Present these contradictions are to realize self and that is bigger than being realized. 2) self is faster than mind. Before the reflected conscience prevades and then the thoughts and imaginations are present in mind. Self keeps motivating the mind. 3) Hiranyagarba the form of iswara enables all dieties to perform their duties as karma

Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4?


ANSWER:


  • The apparent contradiction in verse 4 is that anejat, meaning motionless whereas manaso javiyo, meaning faster than the mind, and also nainad deva apnuvan purvamarshat, meaning the senses could not overtake it as it reached before the senses could.
  • Another seeming contradiction is taddhāvatah anyānatyeti tiṣṭhat, meaning standing/staying in a place, it goes faster than those who run after it.
  • This is only an apparent contradiction and not real, because there are 2 drishti which has to be considered. They are immanent and transcendental Reality.

Sopadika drishti


  • Immanent
  • manaso javiyah, nainad deva apnuvan purvamarshad, tad dhavatah anyan atyeti
  • With Upadis
  • As a presence Self guides the mind and senses
  • Enables the functionality of the senses and the mind

Nirupadika drishti


  • Transcendental
  • Anejat, evam, tishtat
  • Beyond the upadis
  • Self is one and there is nothing other than that
  • Enabling motion Self remains motionless

What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?


The upanishad present the above apparent contradiction so that the mind does not come to one conclusion or idea instead to make the mind subtle to understand the pointers of the Self in depth. If an idea is derived out of the upanishadic mantra, then it will remain as an idea in the intellect and the subtlety cannot be reflected.


How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?


ANSWER:
Self is faster than the mind because Self is the enlivening or enlightening principle to the mind. So, the Reflected Consciousness/Chidabasa because of which the mind functions.
If the Reflected Consciousness is there before the mind then of course the True Sat Chit Ananda principle, Real Conciousness, will be there before the mind. Meaning, Self is the actual substratum (adishtana) and sarva vyapaka.


Both the mind principle (thinking mind, antar indriya) and the Indriyas which functions through the mind (bahyendriya) are the components which the Self overtake.


Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?


ANSWER:
Mātariśva refers to that which moves in interspace, Hiranyagarbha or sutratma or Vayu.
The whole subtle world is referred here, meaning the Jnana shakti and the kriya shakti are referred here.


Function ###
In Self's presence, the dieties are enabled to perform their duties.


**Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? ** ------------------ **ANSWER:** - The apparent contradiction in verse 4 is that anejat, meaning motionless whereas manaso javiyo, meaning faster than the mind, and also nainad deva apnuvan purvamarshat, meaning the senses could not overtake it as it reached before the senses could. - Another seeming contradiction is taddhāvatah anyānatyeti tiṣṭhat, meaning standing/staying in a place, it goes faster than those who run after it. - This is only an apparent contradiction and not real, because there are 2 drishti which has to be considered. They are immanent and transcendental Reality. ### **Sopadika drishti** ------------------ - Immanent - manaso javiyah, nainad deva apnuvan purvamarshad, tad dhavatah anyan atyeti - With Upadis - As a presence Self guides the mind and senses - Enables the functionality of the senses and the mind ### **Nirupadika drishti** ------------------ - Transcendental - Anejat, evam, tishtat - Beyond the upadis - Self is one and there is nothing other than that - Enabling motion Self remains motionless **What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?** --------------------------------------------------------------------- The upanishad present the above apparent contradiction so that the mind does not come to one conclusion or idea instead to make the mind subtle to understand the pointers of the Self in depth. If an idea is derived out of the upanishadic mantra, then it will remain as an idea in the intellect and the subtlety cannot be reflected. **How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?** ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ **ANSWER:** Self is faster than the mind because Self is the enlivening or enlightening principle to the mind. So, the Reflected Consciousness/Chidabasa because of which the mind functions. If the Reflected Consciousness is there before the mind then of course the True Sat Chit Ananda principle, Real Conciousness, will be there before the mind. Meaning, Self is the actual substratum (adishtana) and sarva vyapaka. Both the mind principle (thinking mind, antar indriya) and the Indriyas which functions through the mind (bahyendriya) are the components which the Self overtake. **Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?** --------------------------------------------------------------------------- **ANSWER:** Mātariśva refers to that which moves in interspace, Hiranyagarbha or sutratma or Vayu. The whole subtle world is referred here, meaning the Jnana shakti and the kriya shakti are referred here. **Function** ### In Self's presence, the dieties are enabled to perform their duties.
edited Sep 27 '23 at 11:25 pm

The contradiction in verse 4, refers to the nature of the SELF or CONSCIOUSNESS.
On the one hand we know that the Self is all-pervading, and has ALWAYS EXISTED, is Unchangeable, and does not move, verse 4 says that it has reached an object, even BEFORE our mind thinks of the object!! So the SELF is considered to be running faster than the mind. We know that the SELF enlivens the mind.The mind cannot function without the presence of the reflected Consciousness.So the expression that the SELF is running faster than the mind, is only a FIGURE OF SPEECH!! Consciousness or the SELF has NO NEED TO RUN ANYWHERE, when it is PRESENT EVERYWHERE!! It is OMNIPRESENT, so it is going to be FASTER than the MIND or the SENSES ( indriyas) too.
The upanishad presents the contradiction, because it does NOT want us to make the SELF an OBJECT!! The SELF is NOT an OBJECT.


  1. The SELF is faster than the MIND, because whichever OBJECT the mind goes to, the SELF already exists there, in the OBJECT, even before the MIND gets there.In doing so, the SELF does NOT MOVE at all!! It does NOT RUN. In fact, the mind cannot function without being enlivened by the SELF.The SELF is all-pervading and so does not need to move at all. The SENSES( indriyas) need the MIND, to enliven them. So the MIND is considered to be running faster than the SENSES. So the SELF is automatically considered to be faster than the SENSES. So the SELF is said to OVERTAKE the SENSES and the MIND.

  2. Matarisva is Hiranyagarbha or Ishwara whose function is to enable the deities to perform their duties, in the presence of the SELF or CONSCIOUSNESS.


The contradiction in verse 4, refers to the nature of the SELF or CONSCIOUSNESS. On the one hand we know that the Self is all-pervading, and has ALWAYS EXISTED, is Unchangeable, and does not move, verse 4 says that it has reached an object, even BEFORE our mind thinks of the object!! So the SELF is considered to be running faster than the mind. We know that the SELF enlivens the mind.The mind cannot function without the presence of the reflected Consciousness.So the expression that the SELF is running faster than the mind, is only a FIGURE OF SPEECH!! Consciousness or the SELF has NO NEED TO RUN ANYWHERE, when it is PRESENT EVERYWHERE!! It is OMNIPRESENT, so it is going to be FASTER than the MIND or the SENSES ( indriyas) too. The upanishad presents the contradiction, because it does NOT want us to make the SELF an OBJECT!! The SELF is NOT an OBJECT. 2. The SELF is faster than the MIND, because whichever OBJECT the mind goes to, the SELF already exists there, in the OBJECT, even before the MIND gets there.In doing so, the SELF does NOT MOVE at all!! It does NOT RUN. In fact, the mind cannot function without being enlivened by the SELF. The SELF is all-pervading and so does not need to move at all. The SENSES( indriyas) need the MIND, to enliven them. So the MIND is considered to be running faster than the SENSES. So the SELF is automatically considered to be faster than the SENSES. So the SELF is said to OVERTAKE the SENSES and the MIND. 3. Matarisva is Hiranyagarbha or Ishwara whose function is to enable the deities to perform their duties, in the presence of the SELF or CONSCIOUSNESS.

Hari Om,


  1. The apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4 is to bring to our attention that the Self is not a thing not even a very subtle thing that can be known by the mind and senses. The seeker is not to create any concepts of the Self, the mind needs to get subtler and sharper for it is to go beyond words. The contradictions that it is motionless in motion and changeless among the change are to be reflected upon to recognize that the Self is the substratum in which all concepts, names, forms, functionalities appear and disappear.

  2. The Self is the substratum, ever there, everywhere. It is only because of the Self that the mind can function. Consciousness reflected in the mind activates the mind and it functions. And with the mind the senses function. Hence wherever the thoughts and senses go chidābhāsa is already there empowering them. Therefore, where the mind goes, and the senses run the Self is ever there therefore is faster and overtakes the mind and senses.

  3. ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 refers to Hiraṇyagarbha. Hiraṇyagarbha is Īśvara that enjoins all the deities to perform their karma.


Hari Om, 1. The apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4 is to bring to our attention that the Self is not a thing not even a very subtle thing that can be known by the mind and senses. The seeker is not to create any concepts of the Self, the mind needs to get subtler and sharper for it is to go beyond words. The contradictions that it is motionless in motion and changeless among the change are to be reflected upon to recognize that the Self is the substratum in which all concepts, names, forms, functionalities appear and disappear. 2. The Self is the substratum, ever there, everywhere. It is only because of the Self that the mind can function. Consciousness reflected in the mind activates the mind and it functions. And with the mind the senses function. Hence wherever the thoughts and senses go chidābhāsa is already there empowering them. Therefore, where the mind goes, and the senses run the Self is ever there therefore is faster and overtakes the mind and senses. 3. ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 refers to Hiraṇyagarbha. Hiraṇyagarbha is Īśvara that enjoins all the deities to perform their karma.

Please note that I have NUMBERED my answers WRONG. It should be 1,2, then 3.


Please note that I have NUMBERED my answers WRONG. It should be 1,2, then 3.

1.Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?
He is the innermost existence, the wonder of wonders. He acts and is at the same time actionless. He moves and yet moves not. He is inside and outside. All these contradictions are reconciled in the Lord.


2.How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?
The word devatas in this context also means the indriyas even which cannot beat Him in speed, for, He reaches much earlier than they. Know that the ātman's speed is greater than that of the mind, It being in fact the pre-supposition of even the thought. This is so because It pervades all.


  1. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?The ātman, this śloka says, is mātariśva or air. The meaning of this word is that which moves in space. This is also interpreted to mean the same as hiraṇyagarbha, also as māhapraṇa or Atman.

1.Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions? He is the innermost existence, the wonder of wonders. He acts and is at the same time actionless. He moves and yet moves not. He is inside and outside. All these contradictions are reconciled in the Lord. 2.How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake? The word devatas in this context also means the indriyas even which cannot beat Him in speed, for, He reaches much earlier than they. Know that the ātman's speed is greater than that of the mind, It being in fact the pre-supposition of even the thought. This is so because It pervades all. 3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function? The ātman, this śloka says, is mātariśva or air. The meaning of this word is that which moves in space. This is also interpreted to mean the same as hiraṇyagarbha, also as māhapraṇa or Atman.
1. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?

a) Verse 4 says, anejata (not moving) and manaso javiiyaa (faster than mind as if moving). The contradiction is how an unmoving anything be faster than anything. Upanisads make us contemplate on these contradictions so that our mind gets purified so we can go beyond the upaadis and realize the Self, as given in Verse 1.


2. How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?

a) Mind is powered by the atma (chidabhasa – reflected consciousness) and if the mind can travel anywhere in no-time then the vastu that empowered it must be there already and hence it is faster. The speed of the thoughts in the mind is overtaken by the Self.


3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?

a) Hiranyagarbha is referred as Maatarisva, as it is in all the places like wind. Its function is to empower all the indriyas to function through the deva as their presiding deity.


##### 1. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions? a) Verse 4 says, anejata (not moving) and manaso javiiyaa (faster than mind as if moving). The contradiction is how an unmoving anything be faster than anything. Upanisads make us contemplate on these contradictions so that our mind gets purified so we can go beyond the upaadis and realize the Self, as given in Verse 1. ##### 2. How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake? a) Mind is powered by the atma (chidabhasa – reflected consciousness) and if the mind can travel anywhere in no-time then the vastu that empowered it must be there already and hence it is faster. The speed of the thoughts in the mind is overtaken by the Self. ##### 3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function? a) Hiranyagarbha is referred as Maatarisva, as it is in all the places like wind. Its function is to empower all the indriyas to function through the deva as their presiding deity.

1.Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?


The upaniṣad in Verse 4 made apparent contradictions with regards to the nature of the Self, by saying that the Self moves - ejate and runs faster than the mind - purvamarsat and also the Self is standing - tisthatah and does not move - anenajat . But in reality this shows how the Self is motionless in motion and how it remains changeless among the change. In this way it shows from the sopadhik drsti of the mind and senses as a chidabhasa, the reflected Consciousness appears to make everything function and from the nirupadhik drsti the Self is ever motionless.


2.How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?


The Self is faster than the mind because the Self, the reflected Consciousness enables the mind to function so the Reflected Consciousness has outrun the mind as it is already there before the mind reaches. The Self overtakes all the components of the mind - conscious, subconscious and unconscious.


3.Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?


In Verse 4 the air/wind/the pranas is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’- the Lord or Isvara. It pervades everywhere and makes everything function. just as Isvara the function of pranas is to allocate the duties and enable the deities to perform their respective duties.


1.Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions? The upaniṣad in Verse 4 made apparent contradictions with regards to the nature of the Self, by saying that the Self moves - ejate and runs faster than the mind - purvamarsat and also the Self is standing - tisthatah and does not move - anenajat . But in reality this shows how the Self is motionless in motion and how it remains changeless among the change. In this way it shows from the sopadhik drsti of the mind and senses as a chidabhasa, the reflected Consciousness appears to make everything function and from the nirupadhik drsti the Self is ever motionless. 2.How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake? The Self is faster than the mind because the Self, the reflected Consciousness enables the mind to function so the Reflected Consciousness has outrun the mind as it is already there before the mind reaches. The Self overtakes all the components of the mind - conscious, subconscious and unconscious. 3.Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function? In Verse 4 the air/wind/the pranas is referred to as  ‘Mātariśva’- the Lord or Isvara. It pervades everywhere and makes everything function. just as Isvara the function of pranas is to allocate the duties and enable the deities to perform their respective duties.
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