Q1. Reflect the apparent contradictions made by the upaniṣad in verse 4? What are the reasons the upaniṣad presents these contradictions?
In the verse 4, Self is said to be faster than the mind, but it is also said to be motionless. The former is from the सोपाधिक दृष्टि of being the energiser of the mind and being stationary from the निरुपाधिक दृष्टि of being the pure consciousness.
The reason for the paradoxical language is so that:
Self should not be visualised as an object with definite property or put into categories.
We should be able to think both from सोपाधिक and निरुपाधिक standpoints.
We should be able to understand the immanence and transcendence of the Self.
Q2. How is the Self faster than the mind? Which components of the mind does the Self overtake?
Light is fastest, it is said, but the mind can go to the farthest galaxy in a moment; hence the mind is said to be fastest. Upanishad poetically says that Self is faster than the mind. When the mind reaches the galaxy, how does it function, if its illumining factor, the Self, had not reached earlier? In fact the Self not only overtakes the mind, but also the reflected consciousness - cidabhasa. Of course, it outruns indriyas.
Q3. Who is referred to as ‘Mātariśva’ in verse 4 and how? What is its function?
Hiranyagarbha the macrocosmic subtle is referred to here as ‘Mātariśva’. At individual level क्रिया शक्ति of the Self enables the jiva and samashti level it allocates the respective powers to the dieties and thus enables and governs the entire cosmos.